RELEASE TO INDEPENDENCE

After the dissolution of colonial empires in Asia and America, therewere increased cries for independence in the countries of the Africancontinent. In the decades after World War II, most African politicalsystems were gradually released to autonomy by the European colonialpowers. Almost everywhere, this was made, more or less, throughpeaceful means. It was only in the former French colony of Algeria


that a bitter, harsh war of liberation began in 1954 and lasted until1962.The two great colonial powers France and Great Britain followeddecolonisation with different approaches and goals. Great Britainfollowed the strategy of gradual convergence with the state autonomythrough constitutional reforms and the creation of political partiesand parliaments. Conflicts developed in Kenya where the secret society


of the Mau Mau terrorists tried to enforce freedom through terror(1952-54), and in Rhodesia, which later became Zimbabwe. TheConstitution of 1965, which secured the political power of the white



minority, was revised after a civil war. In 1968, Great Britain


minority, was revised after a civil war. In 1968, Great Britainreleased its last African colony, Swaziland, to independence. Almostall former British colonies remained a member of the "Commonwealth ofNations" and continue to accept the British monarch as head of state.France, however, pursued the idea of a "Union Francaise"- free andequal citizens who should speak the same language and enjoy the samerights. It soon became clear that this solution did not comply with


the interests of the countries striving for nationalself-determination. For Algeria, in particular, this became a bloodywar of liberation. The French colonial empire broke up during thisconflict in 1960 and Algeria gained its independence in 1962.

CLIMATE MAP OF AFRICA



  


This map coordinates the regions of Africa with its respected climate. The use of different colors helps to show each regions climate. The northern parts of Africa have a Semi-Arid to Arid climate, dueto the desert.  The middle regions have no dry season to short dryseasons.  This region receives the most moisture from lakes andrivers.  The southern region is mixture of forests and grasslands,their weather ranges from Arid to just dry winters.




VEGETATION MAP IN AFRICA



 This is a map that shows the vegetation in Africa.  It uses a scaleof colors to determine the vegetation in each area.  The colors usedto show the vegetation life in the areas works real well, the whiteand browns depict the dry areas and the green areas depict the areaswhich flourish in plant life. 




COLONIES IN AFRICA FROM TO



 This map shows the stages in which different countries had coloniesin Africa.  It dates back to as far as 1890 and as recent as 1988. This would be a good map to use to understand the different



backgrounds of the different countries which lie in the areas that had backgrounds of the different countries which lie in the areas that hadforeign colonies.  The color scale is also a great tool used in thismap as it makes it easy to tell which countries controlled whichareas. 

PHYSICAL MAP OF AFRICA



This map depicts the physical aspects of Africa’s landscape.  Tothe north you can tell by the light brown colors that there is adesert in that region.  To the middle and southern regions of Africayou will notice the dark green colors used to show the areas ofagriculture and forestry.  These two areas are different compared tothe north due to the easier access of water and fertile soil.

RELEASE TO INDEPENDENCE



After the dissolution of colonial empires in Asia and America, therewere increased cries for independence in the countries of the Africancontinent. In the decades after World War II, most African politicalsystems were gradually released to autonomy by the European colonialpowers. Almost everywhere, this was made, more or less, throughpeaceful means. It was only in the former French colony of Algeriathat a bitter, harsh war of liberation began in 1954 and lasted until1962.The two great colonial powers France and Great Britain followeddecolonisation with different approaches and goals. Great Britainfollowed the strategy of gradual convergence with the state autonomythrough constitutional reforms and the creation of political partiesand parliaments. Conflicts developed in Kenya where the secret society
of the Mau Mau terrorists tried to enforce freedom through terror (1952-54), and in Rhodesia, which later became Zimbabwe. TheConstitution of 1965, which secured the political power of the whiteminority, was revised after a civil war. In 1968, Great Britainreleased its last African colony, Swaziland, to independence. Almostall former British colonies remained a member of the "Commonwealth ofNations" and continue to accept the British monarch as head of state.France, however, pursued the idea of a "Union Francaise"- free andequal citizens who should speak the same language and enjoy the samerights. It soon became clear that this solution did not comply withthe interests of the countries striving for nationalself-determination. For Algeria, in particular, this became a bloodywar of liberation. The French colonial empire broke up during thisconflict in 1960 and Algeria gained its independence in 1962.





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